Russian painters 19th century during the time tired of academic monopolies in Russian art, wanted independence and creative work. Either way, the creation of the combined membership of Famous russian artists contributed to the interest to work on a freely chosen subject, therefore, to ensure its independence from the Academy of Fine Arts, the various agencies, organizations and patrons protected by the government.
In 1863, 14 graduates of artists, headed by Ivan Kramskoy refused to fulfill graduation painting on proposed Academy mythological theme Feast in Valhalla but many painters demanded free choice of topic, but in the academy flatly refused, after which many have deliberately left the academy. The solution was this: that it was necessary to establish an independent guild of artists by type of commune, Society for Travelling Art Exhibitions " independent from academic monopoly. It lasted not long time and broke up after 7 years, though this time in 1870, originated a new alliance of talented painters or traveling art exhibitions company, which moved in different cities of Russia.
This new society have tried to show in their work side of true art is valued much higher than the mythological, the artists have aimed to make a broad propaganda of Fine Arts, whose purpose was social and aesthetic education of the masses, approaching life with a democratic art. Reveal in his paintings a true real life of the oppressed peasants who suffer from the power of the landlords and rich, this was main task. Many works artists painted from life in the style of genre painting and other works created by the imagination from real life. Many with great conviction demonstrated the existence of a new artistic movement in the first exhibition, gradually developing from 1860s. In this exhibition was shown pictures, which presented all the popular genres: portrait, landscape and historical genre. Entire showed that 47 pieces overturned the academic ideas of art, it was the first success in this union.
By this time the academy has seen some changes. because the old rules of training is gradually disappearing. 19th century, the golden age of Russian art, which gave Russia a large number of famous painters who left a rich legacy to his descendants, whose value is simply immeasurable. Due to new free movement paintings helps mankind to understand life concepts of those years and the work of artists who have great difficulty with the establishment of the Association of Traveling Art Exhibitions.
In the fate of artists took a huge part Paul Tretjakov (1832-1898) Russian philanthropist collected a large number of paintings most of which he bought, thereby helping the development of artists, later his enormous collection of paintings has reached a level of a museum collection Tretjakov quiveringly concerned to painting art, respected to hard work of them, almost all condition has been enclosed in pictures. In the future all the paintings were given to the museum in Moscow. Now it is world renowned Tretjakov gallery where are presented Russian painting, drawings and other masterpieces.
Famous russian artists 19th
Ivan Kramskoy (1837 - 1887) The famous painter, one of the main reformist in russian art, known for its anti-academic activities, which promotes the benefit of the free development of young artists., Kramskoi principal founder and created TPHV. Without the artist Kramskoi can not imagine all the beginningsof art culture with its latest reforms, which opened to the masses the truth of life in art. Ivan Kramskoi remarkable master of the portrait genre, he wrote a number of famous portraits: Leo Tolstoy, Mikhail Saltykov - Shchedrin, Sofia Nikolaevna Kramskoi, beautiful stranger Portrait Unknown Woman portrait Nekrasov, AD Litovchenko, Ivan Shishkin , etc. His famous painting of Christ in the desert caused a storm of of emotions and did not subside controversy. In this picture Kramskoi wanted to show the dramatic situation of moral choice, with no deviation from the chosen path. Kramskoi once gained enormous popularity on the basis of this, he often entrusted to order a portrait, respectively portraits of his hands always becoming more expensive in his lifetime.
Vasily Perov 1834—1882) Paintings by Perov imbued with real tragedy: The old parents on the grave of her son, a very touching picture of the plight of children Three. His famous picture of Tea in Mytischi,an the arrival on the investigation, Last Tavern at the outpost, Arrival governess in a merchant's house, is also very popular painting Hunters at Rest. which to this day is considered to be the most discussed and loved by all hunters. Much of the early work of the master infused critical, accusatory perception, presenting a spectacular cartoons of the time, involving the clergy. Beautiful portraits of famous contemporary writers, among these works portrait of Dostoevsky, Turgenev, and Ostrovsky. Russian artist Itinerant Perov than anyone revealed in his works the spirit of freedom and creative choice.
Alexey Savrasov (1830—1897) Beautiful landscape painter, a master of lyrical Russian landscape, his famous painting The Rooks Have Arrived, failing to disclose in this painting all the subtle beautyof the Russian landscape, inspired by the extraordinary lyricism, the mystery of existence, which turned every representation of the contemporaries of his native Russian nature. His other paintings are not less popular Forest Road, at the gate of the monastery, Spring Day.
After Savrasov lyrical landscape scored their peak of popularity in other artists. Levitan spoke Savrasov this: Savrasov tried to find in the most simple and ordinary are intimate. deeply touching, often sad features that are so strongly felt in our native landscape and so irresistibly act on the soul. From the origins of the artist Savrasov in Russian fine art landscape revived lyrics, accented boundless love for his native land.
Nikolay Ge (1831-1894) One of heads and organizers of Company independent artists association, torn the creativity with monopoly of academism. Ge adherent domestic history, its painting picture: Peter I interrogates tsarevitch Alexeyin Peterhof, has brought to it appreciable success and popularity of contemporaries. His some works were not so successful: Ekaterina II at Elizabeth, A.Pushkin's coffin in village Mihajlovskoe.
Ge's with many works often was not happy, not from them it finished all up to the end, Mercy it has simply destroyed a painting, hardly experiencing the failures. The glory to it was brought with a picture: the Output from the Last Supper which became one of the best products, excited with the expressiveness of contemporaries. Such pictures how That there is a true?, the Christ and Пилат have criticized clergy, for what has been removed from an exhibition. Works Court sinedriona. " It is accused death!, the crucifixion, is simple not were supposed to exhibitions and were forbidden to demonstration.
Vasiliy Polenov (1844-1927 Fine artist left a significant legacy in Russian landscape painting of the 19thand 20th century, stands out touching emotional perception of color richness and a bright colors. Creativity Polenov tended to epic vision of landscape, he was very fond of Russian nature and, accordingly, tended to landscape issues. For the life of the artist, it is a constant search for beauty, awakening to a good mood and relaxation.
The most notable work Polenov lighted in such wonderful paintings as 'Moscow courtyard', 'Overgrown pond', Golden Autumn and painting Grandmother's Garden, which was just exposed on the traveling exhibition of Russian artists in 1879. from that moment he became a full member of the Union of the Wanderers. Vasily Polenov creativity is diverse, he worked as a theater artist frescoes various theatrical scenery, but their beautiful talents participated in architectural designs, fond of music, promote various innovative solutions.
Victor Vasnetsov (1848-1926) Good painter, portraitist and the landscape master and theatrical artist. In structure of artists association since 1878. One of the first remarkable Russian artists, whose creativityit has been turned to Russian folklore, Vasnetsov has createdmany cloths on a theme of Russian history, national legends and bylinas. Some time Vasnetsov worked for theatre creating various scenery and suits to plays and fairy tales which have rendered huge influence on development theatrically-decorative arts of Russia.
In the well-known products it aspired to transfer epic character руси, describing the sincere poetry, got by deeply national perception of native olden time. Its known works in this genre: After Igor Svjatoslavicha's slaughter with Polovtsy, Alyonushka, Ivan-tsarevitch on the grey wolf, Bogatyrs, Tsar Ivan Vasilevich Groznyj and many other good works. Many these cloths have played a huge role in development of Russian national painting.
Fedor Vasilev (1850—1873)Work of this young artist lived a small, short life, enriched by many Russian painting landscapes, such as the Wet Meadow, Thaw, in the Crimean mountains, in bright autumn colors painted swamp. Vasiliev was able to show in his work the nature of the transition state fromthe weather to sunny state. Favorite motif in his paintings godforsaken country roads, gullies, potholes, dilapidated grown into the earth peasant huts.
Until Vasilyeva and Savrasov Russian artists painted Swiss, Italian and Russian as their native species places were unworthy of the incarnation. Vasilyev could reveal the landscape bleak state of Russian nature showing her true beauty, making contemporaries to admire the beauty of nature to the village to be seen. Vasiliev has lived a very short life of the artist, but even in such a short period he painted dozens of works, a beautiful and relaxing scenery.
Ivan Shishkin (1832—1898)Unique Russian painter, unique master of wood landscapes. Shishkin as anybody another loved the nature of a wood with its picturesque shades of trunks of trees, bright glades shined by the sun and lightness. Shishkin's well-known painted pictures: Shishkin bears painting Morning in a pine forest the entertaining genre where black bear in woods painting, plot conceived by the artist in a picture, in many respects promoted its popularity,
the Rye where from edge up to edge ears a goldrye protected by mighty pines giants, the Stream in a wood picture beautifully worked in details, with rich light shades contrasts, the Ship grove where the ship grove being near to Elabuga is represented афонасовская, in product воплощен all life experience and the most thin knowledge of the native nature which has been saved up by the master for a long creative life, its Many pictures have got huge popularity not only contemporaries, these pictures are known and today to the big circle of admirers of its works. Anybody earlier up to Shishkin with such stunning frankness has not told to the spectator about the love to the native Russian nature. I.I.Shishkin's products became classics of national Russian landscape painting and have found huge popularity.
Arhip Kuindgy (1841—1910)On its cloths pictures with picturesque colour of colours and light are represented. Rays of light making the way through a fog playing puddles on the become limp roads, skill of the artist in transfer of some picturesque receptions of a moonlight considerably underlines,mysterious light of the moon in dark night, brightly red reflected lights of a dawn on walls of the Ukrainian huts.
Night of Kuindgy well-known picture, involves with quiet greatness of the nature, Dnepr in the morning, in a picture the plot of early steppe morning, the Birchwood is described - in this picture the artist has shown Russian nature in hither to unprecedented reception of a painting of pictures, an opening raised image of landscape, sparkling unusual colour and contrast of pure paints. Kuindgy has found the unique, independent way in landscape art.
Isaac Levitan (1860—1900) Great master of quiet landscapes. Levitan loved his native nature, often he would be alone with her finding in her understanding of her beauty, which were reflected in his landscapes. Levitan in not very good weather, he found his rare colorful shades of Russian weather.Singing of the nature of the Upper Volga, he showed the world his great masterpieces: Autumn Day Sokolniki Dull Day, masterful evening landscapes:
Evening on the Volga River, Golden reach, Evening, Spring. High Water, Quiet abode, Evening Bells. and famous paintings - paintings of Eternal Rest and picture transmission bright autumnal mood in Golden Autumn, Levitan's paintings require careful thoughtfulness can not be for us to review, not having comprehended all plan of the famous painter, who left us his own unique landscape painting.
after this work he has stunning popularity.Also not small impression the painting has made Religious procession in Kursk province. In which basis simple people, church priests, police. On a cloth celebrating religious procession in which people is shown without justice at that time Repin has painted also a number of works on a historical theme: Zaporozhye cossacks, composing the letter to the turkish sultan,
Ivan Groznyj and its son Ivan, etc. Very fruitfully worked above portraits, most significant of them portraits of writers Portrait of Tolstoy, Turgenev, Garshin, Setchenov's scientists and Pirogov, composers Musorgsky and Glinka, artists Surikov and Kramskoj. Grandiose on scope and a composite plan a picture: Ceremonial meeting of the State advice, in a picture huge number of present political figures of that time, also in a picture is present and Nikolay II. in this uneasy work of Repin it was possible to describe the characteristic of each character psychologically plausibly. Ilya Repin has left a significant trace in history of Russian painting.
Vasily Surikov (1848—1916) Great Russian painter, a master of color and beautiful color paints and painting techniques are very well acquainted with the Russian way of life and customs of the past. In many of his works Surikov chose tragic fragments of Russian history. Against the background of pictures Surikov highlighted remarkable historical work in which he described the psychologicalcharacteristics of the brightest in his large-scale works such as: famous painting Boyarinya Morozova,
Peter execution of archers in the painting Morning Strelets'execution, Menshikov in birch and painting Conquest of Siberia by Yermak. Among his works are distinguished tragic fun and holiday picture taking snow town. Surikov unique paintings largely predominant, picturesque - color and true to life. More free time works also painted portraits
Valentine Serov (1865—1911) Serov skillfully sketched from life, for it is very much known to posed patrons, artists and writers,well conveyed similarity, all affect the fact that the artist received many lessons from Ilya Repin. Most noticeable were the portraits: Girl with Peaches, the picture is surrounded with the child's perception of spirituality and tenderness, Enchanted contemporaries rose gold tones and lightness.
The girl in the sunlightin a picture plays the morning sun lit meadow, a young girl sitting in the shade of radiant youth and beauty, portrait MN Akimova and many others. The artist's work has evolved in several ways, but most of all he was close to the genre of portraiture.